Settings for Sampling Panels

Overview

Settings files can be used to apply channel and sampling settings to Data Sampling and Scope Sampling Panels.

kuraCloud provides a number of built-in presets for various applications which you can apply to your Sampling Panels.

Data Sampling preset settings files:

Scope Sampling preset settings files:

You can also upload your own settings file, which is created using LabChart​ (v8.1.2 or later).

Applying a settings file

To apply a settings file to your Sampling Panel:

  1. With the lesson in Edit mode, select your Data Sampling or Scope Sampling Panel and click Edit.
  2. Click the Settings dropdown in the page footer, and select one of the built-in presets, or Upload settings file to apply your own settings.
  3. Click Done.

Default settings

You can use the Default preset settings together with any ADInstruments smart transducer to record biological variables.


Exercises you can do with these settings

  • Connect a finger pulse transducer to Channel 1 of the PowerLab to record your pulse.
  • Connect a Grip Force transducer to test your hand grip strength and stamina.

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

  • Connect your transducer to Channel 1 of a PowerLab. 
  • Ensure the PowerLab is powered on.

2-channel EMG

You can use the 2-channel EMG preset settings together with a Powerlab with an inbuilt Bio Amp to record a surface electromyogram (EMG) from 2 groups of muscles. An RMS channel calculation allows you to quantify the muscle activity in each muscle group.

Exercises you can do with these settings

  • Record a surface electromyogram (EMG) from a volunteer. 
  • Observe coactivation of a pair of "antagonistic" muscles, such as the biceps and triceps, using a dual Bio Amp recording of EMG activity, and root mean square (RMS) analysis to allow quantification of muscle activity.

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Electromyography (EMG) equipment setup

  1. Connect the five-lead Bio Amp cable to the Bio Amp socket on the PowerLab.
  2. Connect the five color-coded lead wires to the Bio Amp cable, as shown.
  3. Make sure the PowerLab is connected to the computer and turned on.
  4. Attach the green lead wire to the dry earth strap. If the dry earth strap has a single connector lead wire it should be inserted onto the pin nearest the Earth label.
  5. Firmly attach the Dry Earth Strap around the volunteer's palm or wrist. The fuzzy side of the Dry Earth Strap needs to make full contact with the skin.
  6. Lightly mark two small crosses on the skin overlying the volunteer's biceps muscle, in the position for the biceps recording electrodes, as shown. The crosses should be 2–5 cm apart and aligned with the long axis of the arm. Lightly abrade the skin at these areas with Abrasive Gel. Use Alcohol Swabs to clean the skin in each area where electrodes will be placed. This is an essential step as it decreases the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact.
  7. Prepare the skin over the volunteer's triceps muscle for attaching the electrodes as outlined in step 6 for the biceps.
  8. Snap the CH1 and CH2 lead wires onto some disposable ECG electrodes.
  9. Place the CH1 electrodes on the volunteer's biceps over the crosses and press firmly so they adhere well. It does not matter which is positive and which is negative.
  10. Place the CH2 electrodes on the volunteer's triceps over the crosses and press firmly so they adhere well. It does not matter which is positive and which is negative.
  11. Check that all four electrodes and the Dry Earth Strap are properly connected to the volunteer and the Bio Amp Cable before proceeding.


Blood pressure and cardio microphone

The Blood pressure and cardio microphone preset settings can be used with a blood pressure cuff which has an inbuilt pressure transducer and a cardio microphone to record a volunteer's blood pressure using the PowerLab. 

Exercises you can do with these settings

  • Use the cardio microphone to record arterial sound while deflating the blood pressure cuff. The first and last Korotkoff sounds indicate systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures, respectively.
  • Investigate the effect of deflating the cuff at different rates on accuracy of blood pressure measurements.
  • Compare the measurement of blood pressure in the arm using cuffs of various sizes.
  • Examine how the position of the arm affects the blood pressure. Compare:
    • Arm hanging down loosely by the side.
    • Arm held straight above the head.
    • Arm at head level.

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

Pressure Transducer

  1. Leave the pressure transducer plugged into Input 1 on the PowerLab. 
  2. Ensure the pressure transducer is attached to the sphygmomanometer cuff.
  3. Wrap the sphygmomanometer cuff around the upper arm of your volunteer, just above the elbow.

Cardio Microphone

  1. Connect the cardio microphone to Input 2. 
  2. Place the cardio microphone over an appropriate artery (e.g. the brachial artery, as indicated by the arrow) below the level of the cuff. Use a Velcro strap to hold it in place.
  3. Ensure the PowerLab is powered on.

Blood pressure measurement procedure

  1. Leave the blood pressure cuff in place around the upper portion of the volunteer's arm (either arm), between the elbow and the shoulder. 
  2. Place the cardio microphone over the brachial artery. It is best to position this just below the cuff and to hold it in place with a Velcro strap. But it can also be placed under the blood pressure cuff so that it is held in position by the cuff. 
  3. Click Start. 
  4. Inflate the cuff to 30 mmHg higher than the estimated systolic pressure.
  5. Slowly reduce the pressure in the cuff (approximately  2–3 mmHg per second or per pulse beat).
  6. Deflate the cuff completely once the pressure has gone below 50 mmHg or after the disappearance of the Korotkoff sounds. 
  7. Click Stop. 

Blood pressure analysis procedure

  1. Examine your recording. The cardio microphone channel displays the Korotkoff sounds as spikes. These spikes can be used to determine systolic and diastolic pressure. 
  2. Select the data corresponding to the Korotkoff sounds (i.e. from the first spike to the last clear spike in the series). 
  3. The first spike occurs at the systolic pressure. The last spike in the series occurs at the diastolic pressure. 

Note: In some people diastole may not be obvious and you may need to estimate.

 

Breathing

You can use the Breathing preset settings together with a Respiratory Belt to measure your breathing rate and breath amplitude.

Exercises you can do using these settings

With this simple equipment you can record quiet breathing and then examine the effects of hyperventilation, rebreathing expired air, and/or exercise.

As an example, follow the protocol shown below:

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

  • Fasten the Respiratory Belt around the chest of the volunteer, as shown. The transducer should be at the front of the body, in line with the navel, and tightened sufficiently so that it remains under tension even when the volunteer fully exhales.
    The Respiratory Belt Transducer can be used over clothing, and it does not matter whether the subject is sitting or standing, as long as they are comfortable (this is quite a long exercise).
  • Connect the Respiratory Belt Transducer to Input 1 on the PowerLab.
    It is important when recording normal respiration that the subject is facing away from the computer screen and is not consciously controlling breathing. The subject may have to stare out a window or read a book to avoid conscious control of respiration. 

​​

ECG and heart rate

You can use the ECG and heart rate preset settings together with a PowerLab with an inbuilt Bio Amp to record a volunteer's ECG and heart rate. Ask the volunteer to relax and keep still to avoid any movement artifacts. 

Exercises you can do using these settings

  • Record a standard (3 electrode or "5 lead") ECG and identify the major components in the ECG: the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave.
  • As an optional exercise, you can perform a 12 lead ECG similar to those carried out in hospitals to diagnose heart conditions; a 12 lead ECG provides 12 different views of the heart. [Note: To perform the 12 lead ECG exercise, a ECG 12 Lead Selector Box is required].

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

Standard ECG

  1. Make sure the PowerLab is connected and turned on.
  2. Connect the electrode lead wires to Earth, CH1 NEG and CH1 POS on the Bio Amp cable.
  3. Connect the Bio Amp cable to the Bio Amp input on the PowerLab.
  4. Attach ECG Electrodes as described below.

Attaching ECG Electrodes

  1. Remove any watches and/or jewelry from the volunteer's wrists and ankles.
  2. Using a pen, mark each point on the volunteer's skin where electrodes will be placed (i.e., both wrists and the right leg). Lightly abrade the skin with Abrasive Gel. Then clean the area with Alcohol Swabs. This preparation reduces the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact.
  3. Snap the lead wires onto disposable electrodes
  4. Attach the electrodes to the prepared areas on the volunteer's skin. The positive electrode should go to the left wrist, the negative electrode to the right wrist and the ground electrode to the right leg.

12 lead ECG

  1. Remove any watches and/or jewelry from the volunteer's wrists and ankles.
  2. Make sure the PowerLab is connected and turned on.
  3. Connect the electrode lead wires to RL, RA, V1–V6, LA and LL on the 10 lead connector (the electrodes and plugs are labeled and color coded). Note: some leads share the same color coding (i.e. green for RL & V3, red for V1 & LL). Make sure you have attached each lead to the correct plug.
  4. Connect the Lead Selector Box to the Bio Amp input on the PowerLab.


Placement of the limb leads.

  1. Using a pen, mark each point on the volunteer's skin where electrodes will be placed (i.e., both wrists and ankles, and across the chest). Lightly abrade the skin with Abrasive Gel. Then clean the area with Alcohol Swabs. This preparation reduces the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact.
  2. Attach disposable electrodes to the prepared areas on the volunteer's skin. Attach the limb leads:
  • RL (right leg)
  • RA (right arm)
  • LA (left arm)
  • LL (left leg)

Placement of the precordial leads to the chest electrodes

  1. Locate the volunteer's right clavicle. Feel the space below the clavicle, but above the first rib. This is the first intercostal space.
  2. Work your way down the chest, counting the ribs as you go.
  3. When you get to the 4th intercostal space (between the 4thand 5th ribs), make a mark just to the right of the sternum. This is where V1 will go.
  4. V2 is placed in line with V1, but on the opposite side of the sternum. Mark this point.
  5. Continue to slide your finger along the 4th intercostal space until you reach the mid-clavicular line. Then move your fingers down and into the 5th intercostal space (between the 5th and 6th ribs). Mark the point for V4.
  6. V3 will be attached at the midway point between V2 and V4.
  7. In the 5th intercostal space, locate the mid-axillary line (middle of armpit). This is lead V6.
  8. Mark the point between V4 and V6, this is where V5 will go.

ECG, PCG and pulse

The ECG, PCG and pulse preset settings can be used with a cardio microphone, finger pulse transducer and Bio Amp to record heart sounds, and the mechanical and electrical activity of the heart, respectively, in the same trace. You can compare the timing of the different events and distinguish between the "lub" and "dub" heart sounds.

Exercises you can do with these settings

  • During each cardiac cycle, heart valves open and close. Closure generates sounds that can be heard using a stethoscope.
  • Visualize the heart sounds in the phonocardiogram (PCG) trace and distinguish between the lub and dub sounds.
  • See how the heart sounds relate to the electrical activity of the heart, by recording the heart sounds and the ECG together.
  • Does every QRS complex that you see in an ECG result in a detectable pulse? In other words, does every electrical event result in a mechanical event?

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

  1. Connect the Cardio Microphone to Input 1 on the PowerLab.
  2. Connect the Pulse Transducer cable to Input 2 on the front of the PowerLab.
  3. Plug the Bio Amp Cable into the Bio Amp Connector on the PowerLab.
  4. Connect the electrode lead wires to Earth, CH1 NEG and CH1 POS on the Bio Amp Cable.

Electrode placement

  1. Remove any watches and/or jewelry from the volunteer's wrists and ankles.
  2. Using a pen, mark where electrodes will be placed on the volunteer's right and left wrists and right leg. Lightly abrade the skin with Abrasive Gel and clean the area with Alcohol Swabs. This reduces the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact.
  3. Snap the electrode lead wires onto some disposable electrodes.
  4. Attach the disposable electrodes to the prepared areas on the volunteer's wrists and leg: the positive electrode to the left wrist, the negative electrode to the right wrist, and the ground electrode to the right leg.

Pulse and heart rate

The Pulse and heart rate preset settings can be used together with a finger pulse transducer to measure your heart rate.

Exercises you can do with these settings

  • With the Pulse Transducer attached to the distal segment of a volunteer's middle finger, investigate whether there are any rhythmic variations in heart rate during quiet breathing. 
  • Alternatively, use the Pulse Transducer to visualize the waveform of the radial pulse during the cardiac cycle (see equipment setup image below).
  • Count the number of pulses in different time periods (e.g. 15, 30 and 60 seconds) and calculate the heart rate as you would in a clinical setting.

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

  1. Connect the Pulse Transducer to Input 1 on the PowerLab.
  2. Attach the Pulse Transducer to the volunteer's middle finger. 
  3. Alternatively, palpate for the radial pulse on your volunteer. 
  4. As shown in the image opposite, place the pressure pad of the Pulse Transducer against the radial artery of a volunteer.


Spirometry flow and volume

The Spirometry flow and volume preset settings can be used with an ADInstruments 1000 L Flow Head and Spirometer Pod to allow many components of pulmonary function to be visualized, measured and calculated.

The Spirometer Pod requires zeroing prior to starting sampling. This must be done every time. This is to ensure that the calculation of volume from the flow signal starts with a zero flow value. You will need to turn on ‘Standard Zeroing’ in the Data Sampling panel for this settings file.

You may also wish to account for the normal drift in volume due to gas expansion of exhaled gases by adding a Spirometry panel.

Exercises you can do with these settings

  • Record and analyze respiratory variables.
  • Perform pulmonary function tests and measure FEV1.

The following instructions may be useful for you to copy and paste for your students:

Equipment setup procedure

  1. Connect the Spirometer Pod to Input 1 on the PowerLab.
  2. Because the Spirometer Pod is sensitive to temperature and tends to drift during warm-up, turn on the PowerLab for at least 5 minutes before use. To prevent temperature drift due to heating of the pod, place it on a shelf or beside the PowerLab, away from the PowerLab power supply.
  3. Connect the two plastic tubes from the Flow Head to the short pipes on the back of the Spirometer Pod.
  4. Attach Clean Bore Tubing, a Filter, and Mouthpiece to the Flow Head.
  5. Make sure you have access to the following equipment for different parts of the experiment:
    • Tape measure for measuring the volunteer's height.
    • Extra mouthpieces and disposable air filters for each volunteer.


ECG event averaging

This settings file is for ECG detection, and will average every 4 ECG complexes. This is useful if you have a noisy signal, for example, or if you wish to measure P, Q, R, S and T waves. To use this file you will need a Bio Amp connected to Input 3 of your PowerLab.


  1. Remove any watch and/or jewelry from the volunteer's wrists and ankles.
  2. Using a pen, mark each point on the volunteer's skin where electrodes will be placed (i.e., both wrists and the right leg).
  3. Lightly abrade the skin with abrasive gel. Then clean the area with alcohol swabs. This preparation reduces the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact.
  4. Snap disposable electrodes onto the three electrode lead wires.
  5. To avoid discomfort for the volunteer, it is best to first attach the electrode lead wires to the disposable electrodes before applying the disposable electrodes to prepared areas on the volunteer's skin.
  6. Attach the electrodes to the prepared areas on the volunteer's skin:
    • The positive electrode to the left wrist.
    • The negative electrode to the right wrist.
    • The ground electrode to the right leg.
  7. Make sure the PowerLab is connected and turned on.
  8. Connect the electrode lead wires to Earth, CH1 NEG and CH1 POS on the Bio Amp cable.
  9. Connect the Bio Amp cable to the Bio Amp input on the PowerLab. (If you are using a Bio Amp front-end, connect the front-end to input 3 on your PowerLab).

Evoked EMG

This is a general purpose settings file of 500 ms duration. Scope averaging has not been applied in this file. The Isolated Stimulator is set to be ON with a starting current of 0 mA. This settings file can be used to record an evoked electromyogram (EMG) from a human volunteer.

To use this file, ensure you have a PowerLab attached to your computer. You will also need an Isolated Stimulator and a Bio Amp (Input 3) connected to your PowerLab. Note that PowerLabs 26T and 15T both have an inbuilt Isolated Stimulator and a dual Bio Amp, which is connected to PowerLab Inputs 3 & 4.

Before you make a recording in Lt, drag a Stimulator panel onto your page in Lt. It should recognize the Stimulator settings in your Scope sampling panel. Select Preview and select a suitable starting current (5 –15 mA). When you click Start you should see a stimulus marker in the Stimulus channel (see figure).
 

The Stimulator panel should recognize the Stimulator settings in your Scope sampling panel. Note the stimulus marker in the Stimulus channel.

Suggested Equipment setup for an Evoked EMG recording from the thumb:
1. Make sure the PowerLab is connected to your computer and turned on.
2. Remove any watches or jewelry from your wrists.
3. Connect the electrode lead wires to Earth, CH1 NEG and POS on the Bio Amp cable.
4. Plug the Bio Amp cable into the Bio Amp input. (If you are using a Bio Amp front-end, connect the front-end to input 3 on your PowerLab).
5. Lightly mark two small crosses on the skin above the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, in the position for the recording electrodes shown in figure 1. The crosses should be 2–3 cm apart.
6. Lightly abrade the marked skin to reduce its electrical resistance.
7. Obtain two new disposable ECG electrodes and trim the adhesive pad slightly so they will fit as shown in the figure.
8. Place the electrodes onto the skin over the crosses so they adhere well. To reduce electrode movement, use adhesive tape to attach the wires to the skin close to the electrode.
9. Snap the lead wires from CH1 on the Bio Amp cable onto the electrodes.
10. Check that the two electrodes and the dry earth strap are properly connected to the volunteer and to the Bio Amp cable before proceeding.
11. Connect the Stimulating Bar Electrode to the Isolated Stimulator output of the PowerLab: the red (positive) connector to the red output and the black (negative) connector to the black output.
12. Place a small amount of electrode cream on the two silver pads of the stimulating bar.
13. Place the stimulus electrode over the volunteer's median nerve at the wrist (the approximate placing is shown in the figure).
14. Turn the Isolated Stimulator switch ON. The Isolated Stimulator only becomes active during a recording. It is switched off internally at all other times. (If your PowerLab does not have an inbuilt Isolated Stimulator, you can connect an Isolated Stimulator front-end to your PowerLab).
15. The dot on the back of the stimulating bar electrode indicates the positive electrode. Secure the electrode as shown in the figure, with the positive electrode closer to the elbow.